As stated at the end of the previous chapter of the Museum Ship’s Series, this blog was going to be about the former Wisconsin museum ship Alvin Clark. Once again in an attempt to be timelier, this blog will be discussing a current attempt being planned to raise a shipwreck to be put on display as a museum ship. Rest assured one of the largest blunders in historic preservation will be discussed on this blog but for now dear reader, courage. Earlier this summer at the beginning of June, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum made headlines when they announced their plan to raise the Revolutionary War gunboat U.S.S. Spitfire from the bottom of Lake Champlain to be put on display as a museum ship. As I have indicated in several other places on the blog, I am against the raising of shipwrecks because they are better left preserved where they are, in their original context. The case of the Spitfire is not as clear-cut as it seems as the wreck is being raised in response to the invasive species zebra mussels and quagga mussels into Lake Champlain. The Lake Champlain region has a long history of having shipwrecks recovered from the bottom with some successfully persisting to this day while others have long since turned to dust. This blog post is going to focus the history of these wrecks as museum ships; their successes and failures, and less about their participation in conflicts such as the Battle of Valcour Island and the War of 1812 on Lake Champlain.
The U.S.S. Spitfire
The U.S.S. Spitfire was a gunboat constructed and used for the Battle of Valcour Island on October 11, 1776, the very first naval battle of the Revolutionary War. If we were to compare this to the Star Wars Universe, the Battle of Valcour Island would be much like the battle of Scarif in Rogue One wherein each case the Rebellion lost the battle but, the long-term effects allowed each to win the war. Benedict Arnold had forced the British to commit valuable time and resources to a lengthy shipbuilding race in order to establish dominance on Lake Champlain. This lost the British valuable campaign time and without this, the American Army would not have been able to gather the strength necessary for the victory at the Battle of Saratoga. The Spitfire is virtually identical to her sister ship the Philadelphia which is another gunboat that fought at the Battle of Valcour Island currently on display at the Smithsonian Museum of American History. These gunboats were constructed hastily to bolster the numbers of the small Lake Champlain fleet to defend from British Invasion. Much like its sister ship the Philadelphia, the Spitfire sank during its escape from British forces due to the damage that is sustained. The 54-foot Spitfire was discovered during a sonar scan survey of Lake Champlain in 1997 in deep water. In order to protect the pristine wreck, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum has left certain details vague but the wreck subsequently had an archaeological survey completed as part of the larger underwater survey of the Battle of Valcour Island battlefield. Out of the eight gunboats constructed for the conflict, The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum was able to positively identify the gunboat as being the U.S.S. Spitfire due to the later discovery of a historical document called the “Townsend Document” which was a list of Benedict Arnold’s fleet used at the battle and their subsequent disposition. Apparently, the final disposition of the Spitfire apparently matches that of the wreck. The Spitfire itself is remarkably intact sitting upright with its masts intact. A testament to the preservative qualities of Lake Champlain, the Spitfire is in deep, cold water and the sediments surrounding the wreck are anaerobic meaning there is no microbial life degrading the wreck. These are similar to the conditions on Lake Superior.
“Finding the boats is the easiest part of the job, maintaining them is problematic.” Art Cohn, Director Lake Champlain Maritime Museum.
The plans for raising the ship are still tentative, and the reasoning is to protect the wreck from the invading mussels. The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum and its director Art Cohn are fully aware of the implications inherent with raising a shipwreck and acknowledge this fact in their own work regarding the Battle of Valcour Island battlefield, mentioning that there have been numerous efforts to locate and recover historical materials. The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum has a 25-year plan to recover the wreck at an estimated cost of $45 Million complete with a new conservation laboratory in Burlington, Vermont dedicated to the Spitfire. This is not too dissimilar than the plan to raise the C.S.S. Hunley which is currently facing issues because the final plan to display the submarine in North Charleston may not be coming to fruition because the city seems to have lost its enthusiasm. Although initially planned very well, the submarine may be going to Patriot’s Point Maritime and Naval Museum. In that case, people were expecting an immediate turnaround to have a one of a kind shipwreck on display rather than the decades plus conservation at roughly $17 million. Even the best-laid plans to conserve and conserve a shipwreck recovered from the bottom can change dramatically thus affecting the preservation an artifact as fragile as a shipwreck.
The Invaders from Beyond The Sea: Zebra Mussels & Quagga Mussels
The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum has stated that their reasoning for attempting a recovery of the Spitfire is due to the imminent threat of Zebra & Quagga mussels. The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum is one of the first institutions to conduct a long-term study of the effects of the mussels by submerging wood and metal objects at sites along the lake; their preliminary findings showed that the metal artifacts degraded faster. Zebra mussels were discovered in Lake Champlain in 1993 just four years prior to the discovery of the Spitfire on the bottom. This invasive species arrived on the Great Lakes in 1987 and has spread to every corner since. It has only been relatively recently that any comprehensive study of their effect on historic shipwrecks has been conducted. In my short time as a diver on the Great Lakes, the mussels have always been an accepted fact of life. Most divers have devised ways to scrape mussels off of wrecks although this can damage wrecks too as the mussels take the wood off with them. They are prolific breeders and can quickly mass on shipwrecks even on deep wrecks in 400 feet of water.
To further collaborate the findings of the LCMM it has been found that when Zebra Mussels colonize and clog intake pipes that the metal underneath would be more corroded due to their presence. Research into the mussels effect on shipwrecks in ongoing but, the conclusion has been found that the bond between the mussels and metallic objects creates a microenvironment that is ideal for the creation of sulfur reducing bacteria which then corrodes metal. The fear is that the Spitfire will become encrusted in mussels which will then corrode the metal fasteners which corrode and the wreck will go from pristine condition to a pile of wood at the bottom of the lake. This is rescue archaeology meaning it is the excavation or removal of an archaeological site to prevent its destruction by environmental or man-made threats.
The U.S.S. Philadelphia
“The Philadelphia is a part of American History. As such, it belongs to the American people. Why not show it to them and let it tell its story?” Captain Lorenzo Hagglund salvage diver.
My initial question upon learning that the plan was afoot to raise a Revolutionary War gunboat from the bottom of Lake Champlain was there is already one of these gunboats raised and put on display, why go through the effort to raise another one? Like the Spitfire, the Philadelphia was a gunboat built quickly in the span of just 3 weeks over the summer of 1776 for the defense of Lake Champlain. The Philadelphia also participated in the Battle of Valcour Island and had sunk from its damage just after the battle. The Philadelphia was 53 feet long with a 15-foot beam and displaced 29 GT. It was armed with 1 x 12 lb. long gun and 2 x 9 lb. guns. It would have carried a crew of 45. Lake Champlain has had a long history of raising historic shipwrecks off the bottom and the Spitfire would be a continuation of that tradition. Most of the wrecks recovered this was the work of one individual, Captain Lorenzo Hagglund. As a salvage diver with a passion for history, he figured that the best way to share the history of these shipwrecks was to raise them from the bottom and put them on display. Hagglund recovered the wreck of the Philadelphia in August of 1935. The Philadelphia wasn’t even the first wreck he had recovered, a year prior he had recovered the former flagship of the Lake Champlain Fleet, the Royal Savage (more on this later). The time was 1935, even the base concepts and methods of what would become nautical archaeology wouldn’t be developed for another 30 years. Even so, Hagglund had employed rudimentary archaeological methods with locating and recovering the Philadelphia. He had placed stakes along the New York shoreline and Valcour Island, in order to set up a grid search. He would then probe along the bottom with a grappling hook to search for the wreck, if he came across an object he would mark the site with a buoy and would triangulate its position with the stakes and a rangefinder. Not being patient enough with the systematic approach and a series of disappointing finds he switched to sweeping the bottom with a chain. Eventually, he hung up on an object that brought his boat to a stop, which turned out to be the lost Philadelphia. Much like the Spitfire, the Philadelphia was in pristine condition, sitting upright on the bottom in 57 feet of water approximately 300 yards south of Valcour Island. The mast was sitting upright, reaching to within 10 feet of the surface. Both of the spars had come loss due to the deterioration of the lines. A sketch was made of the wreck in its original context, much like modern archaeological methods. He recovered what artifacts he could find around the wreck. Hagglund brought the Cashman Derrick Lighter No. 3, which was towed by to finally recover the Philadelphia. The wreck was removed from the sediments it was entombed in by having holes blasted out underneath by high-pressure water jets. Then slings were placed underneath the hull, bow, midships, and stern. To prevent the wreck from being crushed, Hagglund had placed tree logs across the gunwales to act as spreaders between the slings. The Philadelphia was then pulled free, though it quickly took a list from the weight of the sediment still in the hull. This was removed with another blast of pressurized water and an additional line was attached to prevent the bow from twisting. After over 150 years on the bottom, the Philadelphia broke the surface to a festival atmosphere. There was no actual plan for the wreck after raising it, so then the question became: what to do with it? He immediately thought of the Smithsonian, as it was the highest museum in the land though he wasn’t able to find any takers on his recovered ship and by 1936 the Philadelphia and its artifacts were placed on a barge and became a floating tourist attaction and spent the ensuing years touring Lake Champlain.
Initially, the Smithsonian didn’t take because a warship (especially one that was once waterlogged) was outside the scope of the museum and it’s watercraft collection. This had changed with Hagglund’s death in 1960 when he had deeded the Philadelphia over to the institution. Regardless, many different museums including the Skenesborough Museum located at the site where the Philadelphia was first built were interested and fought over the wreck, with the Smithsonian winning in the end. There was no initial attempt to conserve the Philadelphia or its artifacts but again it was 1935 conservation of waterlogged artifacts was not even a consideration yet and by the time the Philadelphia reached the Smithsonian, the years had taken their toll more so than both the Battle of Valcour Island and her time on the bottom. The wreck was eventually treated with polyethylene glycol, which replaces water in wood at the cellular level however the wreck had already dried out at that point and it was too little too late. The treatment, unfortunately, did not fully take. Many of Philadelphia‘s timbers had split and cupped indicating that the wood had failed on the cellular level; additionally, the corrosion of the vessels iron fittings had further fragmented the wood within. In another attempt to further preserve the wreck, the Smithsonian applied Gertol 101 (liquid Nylon) to seal in the previous application of polyethylene glycol. Although it did seal in the previous chemical treatment, that treatment was too minimal and the sealant will hamper further efforts to preserve the wood. In 2013, the Smithsonian had the Philadelphia scanned into 3d. This is an innovative approach to historic preservation (especially that of museum ships and shipwrecks of all kinds). Now no matter what the outcome, the vessel will be preserved in a sense and is available online for all to see in intimate detail without standing in front of the wreck.
The Royal Savage
As stated before raising the gunboat Philadelphia, Lorenzo Hagglund had raised another Battle of Valcour Island shipwreck, the Royal Savage in 1934. Built by the British in 1775 in St. John, Quebec, the vessel was sunk during the U.S. invasion of British Canada during the Battle of St. John’s and was later refloated and added to the growing Lake Champlain fleet. The Royal Savage was a 50-foot long, two-masted topsail schooner armed with 8 x 4 lb. guns, 4 x 6 lb. guns, and 10 x swivel guns. The Royal Savage had a 15-foot beam and was 70 GT. Like both the Spitfire and the Philadelphia, the vessel would have carried a crew of about 40-50. She was used as the flagship of the Lake Champlain fleet. During the battle, the vessel ran hard aground and the crew had to abandon ship in front of the advancing British. At which point the British boarded her and turned her guns on the U.S. fleet until the vessel was bombarded with so much cannon fire that the British had to retreat off the stricken vessel. The British would later set fire to the stricken vessel in order to prevent it from falling back into the hands of the U.S., this fire provided the much-needed diversion that allowed the U.S. fleet to retreat from Valcour Island. In 1932 Lorenzo Hagglund had located the wreck while on a family vacation (Diving during a family vacation, I like the cut of his jib) The wreck was located 150 feet offshore from the southwest point of Valcour island in 20 feet of water. Much like his later attempts with the Philadelphia, Lorenzo had attempted to garner interest from the government to raise and display the wreck, once again there was no interest. In 1934, Hagglund took it upon himself to raise the Royal Savage using empty tar drums left at a road construction site filled with air.
Once the wreck was raised with his tar drums, it was hauled ashore. Hagglund had employed rudimentary archaeological methods with his recovery of the Royal Savage when he would remove the sediment from around the hull, he would collect each bucketful and washed the artifacts he found. He had recovered a small assemblage, cannon balls, grape shot, bar shot, buttons, spoons, canteens, a frying pan and a fragmented iron pot. Though he would later give away much of what he had found to interested friends and family. Once the wreck was on shore he had made a sketch of it and tagged each of the pieces so the vessel could be taken apart and put back together.
Over the course of the next 80 years, a permanent home for the Royal Savage never materialized and it was moved from place to place, assembled and disassembled without any conservation. This lasted until 1995 when Lorenzo’s son sold the wreck to the city of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania to be put on display for $42,500. At that time the then mayor of Harrisburg had the grand plans for a “wild west” museum and Civil War museum. It is unknown where a British built Revolutionary War vessel would have fit into that scheme but they had it as part of their collection. Due to that fact that they did not know how to incorporate the wreck of the Royal Savage into their museum, the wreck would further languish as a pile of wood stashed in the corner of a Harrisburg municipal garage. Eventually, the city tried to recoup their losses from their venture and auctioned off some of their artifacts including the remains of the Royal Savage. The wreckage eventually sold for a paltry $5,000 despite protests from both the LCMM and the Naval History and Heritage Command. After the bidding, the purchaser must have felt instant buyers remorse and never collected the wreckage. The wreck of the Royal Savage remained stashed in the garage until 2014 when the City of Harrisburg opened up negotiations with the Naval History and Heritage Command to finally give the Royal Savage a proper home.
“There is no question the Royal Savage is a historically significant wreck, and the remains do have great importance. The question is why did the city purchase them in the first place? and why did the city resist to overturn it to where it could be displayed?” Eric Papenfuse Mayor Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
In July of 2015, the wreckage of the Royal Savage was finally turned over to the NHHC and made the lengthy journey from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania to the NHHC Archaeology and Conservation Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Since the wreck has not been conserved since its raising in 1934, the NHHC has been working diligently to conserve what they can of the Royal Savage and they hope to make a reconstruction in order to better understand the shipbuilding techniques that built the Royal Savage. As of this writing, the Royal Savage is still at the beginning of a multi-phase, multi-year project.
“The ship and its artifacts are now going to be preserved and cherished for generations to come. As they should be.” Eric Papenfuse Mayor Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
The Second Unknown Gunboat
In 1953 the good captain had recovered a second Gondola similar to both the Spitfire and the Philadelphia. At this outset, it’s unclear which out of the eight gunboats constructed was recovered. It’s also unclear where this vessel was recovered out of Lake Champlain. After this recovery, Hagglund tried again to display this gunboat alongside both the Philadelphia and the Royal Savage in one place which again never materialized. Eventually, this gunboat was left abandoned out in the woods simply because he could not find a place for it. This historic wreck apart of the pivotal battle of Valcour Island rotted away in the woods, had its share of artifacts removed by souvenir hunters and was eventually removed to make way for a new campground. There was simply no interest in it and perhaps museums of the time had no idea how to conserve, display, and interpret such artifacts.
The U.S.S. Ticonderoga
In 1959 during the centennial of the town of Whitehall, New York, the town had wanted to commemorate the event with the recovery and display of a shipwreck. Whitehall was formerly known as Skenesborough, the place where the gunboats like the Spitfire and Philadelphia were constructed. The town and its museum were the next contender vying to get the Philadelphia to put on display. Hagglund did not want to turn over the Philadelphia to the museum but did the next best thing he recovered for them the War of 1812 warship U.S.S. Ticonderoga which he had located the previous year. The Ticonderoga had started its life as a merchant steamer but, again in need of ships to defend Lake Champlain from the invading British, the Navy purchased the incomplete steamer while it was still under construction. The Navy then completed the Ticonderoga and rigged it as a schooner and added 8 x 12 lb. guns, 4 x 18 lb. guns, and 3 x 32 lb. guns. The Ticonderoga was 120 feet long and launched in May of 1814. After a successful career during the War of 1812 as part of the American victory at the Battle of Plattsburgh, the Ticonderoga was laid up in Whitehall. The Navy removed all of its armaments and rigging and ostensibly left it abandoned. It was eventually declared unworthy of repair and was sold at a public auction in 1825, most likely for its scrap iron. Though, nothing came of it. The warship was then towed away as a hazard to navigation and abandoned North of Whitehall. After it was recovered the Ticonderoga has spent the last 50 years on display in an open shed on the lawn of the Skenesborough Museum much in the same manner of the U.S.S. Cairo at the Vicksburg National Military Park in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
“The Shipwreck is totally visible and accessible to everybody, everyday which is a wonderful thing. The dilemma of course is in its present situation, arguable it is not stable, it’s not interpreted to its fullest value.” – Art Cohn Director, Lake Champlain Maritime Museum.
The wreck was sprayed down with preservatives at one point but, as far as conservation and preservation are concerned that’s about it. The wreck has sat out in the open exposed to the elements for just over the past 50 years which has sped its deterioration. Both the LCMM and the NHHC has urged the Skenesborough Museum to constuct a contained, climate controlled building to further preserve the wreck with interpretive displays to tell its story. The issue with this proposal is that it is too much of an financial undertaking for the City of Whitehall and the Skenesborough Museum. The vessel was sold at auction and therefore no longer property of the Navy and would have to be given over in the same way the Royal Savage was. The vessel was raised prior to the Abandoned Shipwreck Act and is no longer property of the state. The Skenesborough museum does not wish to let the vessel go and who could blame them? It is representative of the town of Whitehall’s history and it’s contributions to the defense of Lake Champlain. It has become apart of Whitehall’s cultural landscape and a backbone of the community. So there it remains in its shed.
The Duke of Cumberland
The very first wreck recovered from Lake Champlain to be put on display was the Duke of Cumberland at Fort Ticonderoga in 1909. Constructed in 1759, the vessel alongside its sister ship the Boscawen were used by the British to dislodge the French from Lake Champlain. The Duke of Cumberland was a 20 gun brig and much like the later American gunboats Spitfire and Philadelphia was constructed hastily and frantically to counter French shipbuilding. Both the Duke of Cumberland and the Boscawen were used successfully to route the French and Lake Champlain and was apart of the larger British victory over French Canada. After which, both vessels were no longer needed and stripped of both their rigging and armarments. As of 1767, both of the vessels were left to rot at their wharf at Fort Ticonderoga and later sunk into 7 feet of water. Being so shallow, the upper works of each vessel had rotted away and the hulls remained preserved, buried in sediment. As of 1984 all that had remained of the Duke of Cumberland was a pile of rotting planks laying amongst a grove of trees at Fort Ticonderoga. It was 1909, the wreck was raised be an attraction to bring people to historic Fort Ticonderoga. Conservation and site recording were non-existent and American archaeology was still in its infancy and historic shipwrecks were not a consideration more of a novelty. Little is known about the Duke of Cumberland but it was slightly larger, more heavily armed and rigged differently than its counterpart the Boscawen though still similar. Discovered in 1983 and excavated from 1984-85 the Boscawen is a 16-gun sloop. Outside of the ancient dug outs found in and around the lake, the Boscowen is the oldest shipwreck in Lake Champlain waters. The Boscawen was revealed to be artifact rich, much more than anticipated. The British left virtually everything aboard when they abandoned it. The Boscawen represents one of the earliest and finest collections of a military vessel sunk in American waters.
There have been five wrecks raised from the bottom of Lake Champlain with the Spitfire possibly becoming the sixth. Supposedly, Lorenzo Hagglund had raised another shipwreck, the steamer Vermont, one of the first steam boats on Lake Champlain but I haven’t been able to find any information about that wreck or what became of it. The situation with the Spitfire represents a “Sticky Wicket”, a difficult situation. Art Cohn and the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s plans for the Spitfire still remain tentative. On one hand you have yet another shipwreck being raised regardless of how many prior have failed, or established wrecks like the Hunley whose future has suddenly become uncertain. On the other hand there is the imminent threat of both Zebra and Quagga mussels. The Lake Champlain Maritime Museum is one of the few institutions taking steps to preserve wrecks threatened by their presence. It does not help that the full examination of the threat of both species of mussels have on the preservation of shipwrecks is still ongoing in the nearly three decades its been, but, the results so far have not been promising. The ethics of raising a shipwreck in this case isn’t instantly straightforward and therefore it is difficult to take a stance either way. The Spitfire isn’t being pulled out as a novelty or to make a quick buck it is being raised to rescue it from a threat much like the recovery that’s currently underway of the C.S.S. Georgia which is being removed due to harbor improvements of the Savannah River. The river is being deepened and to prevent the wreck which is listed on the NRHP from being adversely effected by dredging it and its artifacts are being recovered to prevent damage from harbor improvements. Which is the fundamental fact of archaeology, in order to protect cultural heritage from being destroyed we have to destroy an archaeological site by recovering it and its artifacts. What is certain is that the LCMM is not taking the situation lightly after having establishing themselves as advocates of historic shipwreck preservation. The ultimate outcome remains to be seen.
References & Resources
Elder-Connors. Liam & Wertlieb, Mitch. After 240 Year At Bottom of Lake Champlain, A Plan to Raise Revolutionary War-Era Ship. Vermont Public Radio.
Cohn Et Al. Valcour Bay Research Project: 1999-2004 Results from the Archaeological Investigation of a Revolutionary War Battlefield in Lake Champlain, Clinton County, New York.
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Shipwrecks of Lake Champlain: Gunboat Spitfire
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Spitfire Preservation Plan in A Tale of Three Gunboats
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. A Tale of Three Gunboats. Youtube Video.
WCAX What’s Next for the USS Spitfire?
Ring, Wilson. Museum Wants Revolutionary War Boat Saved From Lake Bottom. San Fransisco Chronicle
Ring, Wilson. Raise the Spitfire? Historian Forges Plan For Boat. Burlington Free Press.
Slade, David. Amid Uncertainty About Hunley Museum, Patriots Point Resurfaces As Possible Site. The Post and Courier
Zebra & Quagga Mussels
Black, Glen Et Al. Impacts of Zebra Mussel Infestations On The Shipwrecks Of Thunder Bay, Lake Huron. Diving for Science in the 21st Century, American Academy of Underwater Sciences.
Claiborne, William. A Threat To Underwater History. The Washington Post.
Cohn, Art. Zebra Mussels and Their Impact on Historic Shipwrecks. Lake Champlain Management Conference 1996.
Gannon, Megan. Shipwreck Alley Threatened By Invasive Mussels. LiveScience.
Scott-Ireton, Della & Spirek James D. Assessing The Impact Of Zebra Mussels on Underwater Preserve Sites in Submerged Cultural Resource Management Preserving and Interpreting Our Sunken Heritage.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Zebra Mussels.
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Quagga Mussels.
Bratten, John Raymond. The Continental Gondola Philadelphia. Master’s Thesis, Texas A&M.
*Also see his published update.
Bratten, John Raymond. The Gondola Philadelphia And The Battle of Lake Champlain.
The History Blog. Explore The Revolutionary War Gunboat Philadelphia.
Historic Naval Ships Association. Continental Gunboat Philadelphia.
National Register of Historic Places. The U.S. Gundelo Philadelphia (Coninental Gondola)
National Museum of American History. Gunboat Philadelphia.
National Museum of American History. Gunboat Philadelphia Fact Sheet.
National Museum of American History. Raising of the Gunboat (1935).
*Original Footage of the Raising.
Smithsonian Institution Digitization 3D Gunboat Philadelphia.
The Royal Savage
Barbieri, Michael. The Fate of The Royal Savage. Journal of The American Revolution.
Beil, Eloise. A Well Traveled Lake Champlain Shipwreck. Burlington Free Press.
Eckstein, Megan. Navy Accepts Remains of Revolutionary War Schooner. U.S. Naval Institue News.
Live Auctioneers. Online Auction of the Royal Savage.
Naval History and Heritage Command. Royal Savage. DANFS.
Naval History and Heritage Command. Remains of Revolutionary War Schooner Presented to Navy.
Navsource. The Royal Savage.
Popular Mechanics. Arnold’s Flagship Raised on Old Tar Drums. June 1935.
Roche, Kim. Old Ship, New Tale: The Story of Conserving Royal Savage. The Sextant.
Vendel, Christine. Harrisburg Owns Ship Commanded By Benedict Arnold. The Question is Why? Pennsylvania Live.
The Second Unknown Gunboat
Bratten, John Raymond. The Continental Gondola Philadelphia. Master’s Thesis, Texas A&M.
The U.S.S. Ticonderoga
Bratten, John Raymond. The Continental Gondola Philadelphia. Master’s Thesis, Texas A&M.
Carola, Chris. War of 1812 Naval Relic Still Stored in NY Shed.The Oklahoman.
Harris, Sarah. What Happens to An Old Warship 200 years Later? North Country Public Radio.
Kane, et al. The Search For MacDonough’s Shipyard: Phase IB Archeological Investigations at at War of 1812 Shipyard.
The Duke of Cumberland
Erwin, Gail. Personal Possessions From The H.M.S. Boscawen: Life Aboard a Mid Eighteenth Century Warship During The French and Indian War. Master’s Thesis, Texas A&M
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Lake Champlain. Images of America.
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. Shipwrecks of Lake Champlain: Sloop Boscawen.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Raising History: Raising The C.S.S. Georgia.
Savannah Morning News. Savannah Harbor Deepening Project Dredges Up History.