Introduction To Museum Ships Series
One of the reasons that I started this blog is that I wanted to discuss museum ships and the preservation issues inherent with them. Namely, I begun this writing venture with the desire to write a series of case studies on museum ships that have failed. When I was first formulating this idea, I had heard the sad story of the vessel that this blog post is about to discuss: the Falls of Clyde. I then grew the scope of this writing project to include ships that are currently threatened. I wanted to write a history of the ship itself and the series of incidents that led to these ships final demise. In some of these cases the ships have long since been lost to time. I feel like researching these ships and gathering their histories in one place I would be preserving their memory in a way. In many cases once these vessels failed to be preserved, history quickly forgot their passing. I was initially going to begin this series of case studies by discussing a museum ship known all too well in Wisconsin, the Alvin Clark but instead I’ve decided to write about a current preservation issue. As you will see, museum ships and their upkeep represent a huge investment each with a comprehensive preservation plan. Especially if the ship is still floating.
“…Some things give our lives more significance than others, tell us more about who were are, make the future more interesting by enriching our past. Museum ships do this in a special way that is becoming more important as a result of globalization. Once upon a time, seafaring people of the world built vessels of marvelous individuality…each an expression of the local culture and the resources at hand to build a machine that travels on water. Ships and boats, therefore were once icons of the world’s habitats. ” -Bob Krauss
Introduction To The Falls of Clyde
The Falls of Clyde is a former museum vessel located at Pier 7 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The preservation issue recently (2016) came to a head when the Hawaii Department of Transportation: Harbors Division revoked the vessels permit for mooring at pier 7 and forced its current owners the Friends of The Falls of Clyde to come up with a plan to remove the vessel in addition to their current plans to get the ship dry-docked and restored. This is another time in this ship’s long history where it was threatened with sinking.
A General History of the Falls of Clyde
The Falls of Clyde is a four masted, iron-hulled windjammer constructed in 1878; sliding down the ways in December. The vessel was constructed at the famous Russel & Company shipyards located in Port Glasgow, Scotland. The Falls of Clyde in its initial configuration was 266 feet long, with a 40-foot beam and a 23-foot depth of hold. 1,807 GT and 1,741 NT. The Falls of Clyde carried a crew of 36 in its original configuration. She is equipped with 4 masts and was initially rigged as a ship (3 or more masts with square rigging/sails).
The vessels owners Wright Breckenridge & Co. had the tendency to name their ships after famous waterfalls in Scotland for their “Falls line” therefore the Falls of Clyde was name accordingly. The Falls of Clyde was the very first of the nine “Falls line” ships that Wright Breckenridge & Co. had constructed for Russel & Co. At the time of its launch the Falls of Clyde was rated 100A1 by Lloyd’s of London insurance, the highest rating that the insurance firm could give. The Falls of Clyde spent the first part of its life transporting cargos from the U.K to such far-flung exotic ports and locales such as Calcutta, Bombay, Rangoon, Karachi, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, Portland and San Francisco. During these voyages the Falls of Clyde had circumnavigated the globe four times. She carried cargoes of all types. Ships of her kind sailed very well but, the Falls of Clyde was constructed during the very last gasp of the age of sail. She was quickly overtaken by the faster and more economical steam-powered cargo ships.
In 1899 after 21 years as a British merchantmen the Falls of Clyde was acquired by the U.S based Matson lines under the most interesting of circumstances. Being that the ship was a British flagged ship, transferring it to the U.S refister was expensive. The annexation of Hawaii to the United States in 1898 offered a tantalizing loophole. Prior to annexation Hawaii was an independent republic that flew its own flag. The annexation stipulated that vessels that flew the Hawaiian flag (The Falls also did) would automatically be added to the U.S. Registry. Therefore the Falls of Clyde was in Honolulu flying a Hawaiian flag at the time of annexation and Matson purchased the ship to his growing fleet at a bargain.
The Matson Lines had the Falls of Clyde refit; the vessel was down rigged from a ship to a barque (3 masts where the foremast and mainmast are square-rigged but the mizzen mast is rigged fore and aft). Therefore requiring less crew from 39 down to just 12. A deckhouse and galley was added behind the foremast for the crew, the poop deck was extended (making her 280 feet) and cabins were added. The former crew quarters located at the forecastle was made into an ice house for fresh provisions. Additionally a steam-powered donkey engine was placed in the former galley and a shelter house added to the poop deck for passengers. The Falls of Clyde then started her life as a combination passenger and cargo ship. The vessel made regular passages between Hilo, Hawaii and San Francisco, California carrying cargo and passengers both ways. Many passengers found sailing on the ship to be favorable and trip would typically take about 17 days. Over the course of seven years the ship made sixty voyages between Hilo and San Francisco. In 1907 Matson had (along with several other vessels) sold the Falls of Clyde to the Associated Oil Company to make room for more steam ships.
In March 1907 the Falls of Clyde was refit again into her new role as an oil tanker. The Falls of Clyde had ten steel tanks installed, five on either side. Each of these tanks had 19,000 barrel capacity. She also had a large space between decks to carry an additional 12,000 steel gasoline drums of 100-gallon capacity. These tanks also necessitated a pumping system in order to pump out its bulk petroleum cargo and had a specialized member of the crew called a pumpman to operate this machinery. Few vessels of this time were modified to carry bulk liquid cargo and this refit may have contributed the ships continued survival well into the age of steam. In addition to this refit an oil-fired scotch boiler was installed to supply steam to the double-acting pumps in the hold, drove a windlass, a winch and a 5-kilowatt generator. In this new configuration, the Falls of Clyde would continue to sail between San Francisco and Hawaii.
The vessel would sail to Hawaii with a cargo of petroleum and return to San Francisco with a cargo of molasses in the very same tanks. Before the Falls of Clyde would take on a cargo of molasses in Hawaii, a private contractor shore side would come aboard and clean the tanks so the molasses wouldn’t be contaminated. The molasses that the Falls of Clyde would carry would be used for distilling or for feeding cattle. Near tragedy befell the Falls of Clyde in November of 1919. The vessel ran aground hard along the northwest coast of Hawaii above Hilo. The ship was nearly given up but saved by the diligent efforts of a tug and its crew. By 1920 the Falls of Clyde was replaced by a more efficient steam oil tanker yet at this time the U.S had produced 2/3’s of the world’s oil and tankers even sail powered ones were still necessary. The Falls of Clyde was purchased again to take oil from San Francisco to Denmark.
This was to be the vessel’s last sail around Cape Horn. The vessel left San Francisco February 1, 1920, and arrived in Kolding, Denmark June 5. The vessel would then sail for Galveston, Texas to then return to Denmark. By 1921 ownership had passed again to the General Petroleum Company sailing from Mexico to Denmark and then to Bueno Aires back to Tampico, Mexico. The Falls of Clyde was then towed to Seattle, Washington to receive a cargo of gasoline, cases of transmission lube and arctic cup grease. Additional pumps and tanks were installed with hoses on the main deck. She was then towed again to the small Alaskan port of Ketchikan, Alaska. The new oil barge was meant to solve a very particular problem, the tide is apparently very dramatic about 20 feet, therefore the local fishing fleet had only a few hours every day to fill up while level with the dockside filling station. The Falls of Clyde solved that problem as a floating oil barge because it could rise and fall with the tide as well. Every few years the Falls of Clyde would be returned to dry dock in seattle for minor repairs but eventually the masts rotted away and their stumps were removed. The Falls of Clyde remained in this job until 1959.
The Rebirth of the Falls of Clyde
The hulk that was the former Falls of Clyde was purchased by William Mitchell who intended for the ship to be made into a museum. William had the foresight to attempt to preserve the ship. The Falls of Clyde was then towed to the ship boneyard at Lake Washington outside of Seattle. During its stay there, many of the vessels accoutrements were stolen. Although William Mitchell had purchased the vessel, he had to find an interested party with the real estate to display it and the funds in order to restore the ship to its former glory. William along with the help of former Falls of Clyde crew member Fred Klebingat worked hard and wrote everywhere in attempt to drum up support into a purchase of the Falls of Clyde as a museum ship. During this time the cost of restoration would cost $200,000. They attempted to contact a reported in Hawaii for the Honolulu Star Bulletin into writing a story to motivate Hawaiians to save the vessel, which received no response. Karl Kortum then the director fo the San Francisco Maritime Museum attempted to assist William, Fred and the beleaguered Falls of Clyde. After Karl’s recent success with the museum ship Balclutha, he was optimistic for the fate of the Falls of Clyde, he was able to get interest into having the ship put on display in Long Beach, California and received $15,000 in option money but, this plan also fell through.
After four long years in 1963, William Mitchell could no stop his creditors much longer. Unless he came up with the money by June of 1963, the bank would take over the Falls of Clyde and sell her to a logging company to be sunk as a breakwater. Another reporter attempted to urge readers in Hawaii to preserve the Falls of Clyde which also received no reaction. In Honolulu, an unsuspecting administrative assistant by the name of John Wright was thrown into the ship’s drama. He was a representative of the Dillingham Corporation and had written Karl Kortum to help the Honolulu academy of arts get funding by selling a painting of a sailing ship to the San Francisco Maritime Museum. Recognizing the Company that John represented, Karl then attempted to convince him to help rescue the Falls of Clyde using the Balclutha as an example. Wright was convinced becoming another motivated ally for the Falls of Clyde and again attempted to garner support through the Honolulu Star Bulletin and again, nothing came of it.
He had also attempted to get support from the governor of Hawaii John A. Burns whose response was that if there was a responsible organization around the ship, the state would then assist the project. As time was running out, John Wright attempted another article in a Hawaiian newspaper to get support. He was put into contact with Bob Krauss who wrote another article imploring the people of Hawaii to help preserve the Falls of Clyde. This article yielded the response that they were hoping for. It took four newspaper articles to finally reach the public and motivate them to help preserve history. They then got into contact with Dr. Roland Force, the president of Hawaii’s Bishop Museum that if they could raise the funds to restore the ship, would the Museum operate it? His response was yes but apparently the trustees of the museum were not pleased.
The men were finally able to drum up financial support they needed on the local level, getting banks and even a donation from the Matson lines. The money was flowing and the ship was going to be saved and by the time they were nearing their final financial goals five big firms were vying to make the final donation to put their goals over the top. The practicality of the situation began to set in, before the Falls of Clyde could be towed to Honolulu, the vessel would need to be dry-docked for an additional $10,000 before any company would tow it. They had convinced the U.S Navy to use their tug the U.S.S. Moctobi (ATF-105) to tow the Falls of Clyde to Honolulu in October 1963 and about 10,00 people lined up on shore to see the tall ship arrive.
After the vessels arrival, the Coast Guard then stipulated that the restoration could not commence unless the leftover petroleum sludge was removed from the storage tanks, fearing that the vessel could explode at its new mooring due to the combination of petroleum fumes and power tools. Many people were persuaded to help begin the restoration for free but further appeals for financial help failed. Many entrepreneurs did step up but, wanted to make the historic ship into a restaurant or dance hall. After succeeding in rescuing the ship and bringing it home, the fledgling nonprofit Falls of Clyde Maritime Museum was beset by new constant challenges namely they could not gather further funds to make the final restoration.
In May of 1968, the Falls of Clyde received a miracle in the form of a $1,000,000 from an estate. The restoration of the ship had immediately begun in earnest. The first issue was then deciding to which point in the ships career to restore it to. They had logically decided that the ship should be restored to being a full-rigged ship, what she started her life as. Although the Falls of Clyde had all of her masts removed, she did have the advantage in that all of her interior compartments were largely original. Some other museum ships have had their interior gutted and the interior had to be approximated during the restoration process. They also had the advantage in that the had the help of a former crew member Fred Klebingat and his photographic memory of the ship as she was when she was a working vessel. During this time they received photos, snippets and stories from other surviving crew members from all over the world.
The Museum Ship Falls of Clyde
By 1972 the restoration was completed and the Falls of Clyde was inducted into the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 (The nomination form being written by none other than James Delgado) and was later declared a National Historic Landmark in 1989. When attendance to the ship began to lag, a new director of the Bishop Museum discovered that the ship may be worth half a million on the open market and had attempted to see the ship much to the anger of the citizens of Honolulu. A Hawaii congressional delegation had entered a federal appropriation to keep the ship at home in Honolulu, Hawaii. Due to this, The Hawaii Maritime Center was formed around the ship in 1982 separate from the Bishop Museum. On November 23, 1982 Hawaii was hit by Hurricane Iwa, which threatened to break the ship free from its moorings. After a call on the radio, 100 people risked their lives and rushed to rescue the Falls of Clyde by holding the mooring line. Eventually, a tug steamed to rescue the Falls of Clyde and tow her to safety. After this, the vessel was moved to Pier 7.
In 1996 the Hawaii Maritime Center had merged with the Bishop museum due to the Maritime Center running out of money. The Falls of Clyde was reluctantly returned to the ownership of the Bishop museum prior to that in 1994. Over time the museum only its allotted endowments income of $50,000 in upkeep of the ship. Though in 2001 Hawaii senator Daniel Inyoue had announced a congressional earmark of $300,000 to preserve the vessel, which received a matching grant by the Pfieffer foundation of $300,000. The museum then drafted a preservation plan for these funds totalling $600,000. Only about $350,000 of the funds were spent on sandblasting work. By 2007 the Falls of Clyde was closed to the public. The Falls of Clyde was last dry-docked in 1987, though its practice for museum ships to be dry-docked at least every 5 years.
“Rarely has such a well restored ship as the Falls was in the eighties had been so neglected and, consequently deteriorated so quickly.” -Christopher Pala
“The Bishop has utterly failed in its mission as a museum, which is to preserve what’s been entrusted to it .” Jeanie Ainlay, Former Falls of Clyde Tour Guide
The museum had never replaced the zinc anodes that would have prevented the hull from electrolysis. The corrosion has eaten the rudder and 80% of the hull. In some places the hulls riveted plated had become separated from the ship’s ribs by more than an inch requiring steel clamps to prevent further deterioration. A later survey completed by National Park Service ship preservationist, Chris Jannini, made the following conclusions after his survey (much like an archaeological survey); most of the work would be required in the bow and the stern and not only was the Falls of Clyde rusting from the outside in (as the case with most ships) but, also from inside out. The Bishop Museum had two maritime surveyors survey the ship and based on this, the former insurers refused to renew the policy and they could not find any other insurance companies interested in insuring it. Both of the maritime surveyors had completely opposing conclusions one stating the vessel was ostensibly a wreck and the other stating that the Falls of Clyde is still salvageable.
In January of 2008 the Bishop Museum begun to clear the ship in preparation for scuttling and by April 2008 work crews begun to remove the ships rigid and historically significant artifacts. During this time several artifacts from the ship were pilfered away. In response to the looming threat of scuttling the nonprofit group Friends of Falls of Clyde was formed continuing the tradition of William Mitchell and the Falls of Clyde Maritime Museum. Friends of Falls of Clyde was formed to rescue the ship from its sinking fate, get her restored again and put it on display as it once was. The estimated cost of repairs for the Falls of Clyde came to $30 Million. The Bishop Museum declared that if a buyer was not found by September, they would have no option but to sink the ship. The Museum at first did not want to meet with the Friends of The Falls of Clyde due to being skeptical of the group’s ability to raise the proper funds to save the vessel. In August of 2008, the Friends of the Falls of Clyde had discovered that in applying for a permit from the Environmental Protection Agency (presumably to scuttle the ship) The Museum had neglected to mention that the ship was a National Historic Landmark and therefore the EPA had rescinded the museum’s permits. The Bishop Museum had declared this an oversight. Eventually the museum relented in its stance towards the Friends of the Falls of Clyde and sold the group the ship in September of 2008 for $1.
Once again, the Falls of Clyde was saved from a watery grave. The goal was to dry-dock the ship immediately in November. In 2009 the vessel was finally going to be dry-docked again but adverse weather conditions prevented the trip. As time went on, it has been challenging for the group to secure the $35 Million to save the ship. The group has managed to get donors but, not close to the final cost. By 2012 congress had cut the funding for the “Save America’s Treasure’s” program ending another possible revenue stream. Each year since acquiring the ship the Friends of The Falls of Clyde has attempted to get the ship into dry-dock, so far this has yet to be undertaken.
The Falls of Clyde Vs. The State of Hawaii
By June of 2016, the Harbors Division of the Hawaiian Department of Transportation had revoked the Falls of Clyde mooring permit that had allowed the vessel to remain at Pier 7. Citing that the vessel is both a safety hazard and a possible hazard to navigation. Prior to this, the HDOT had worked with the Friends of The Falls of Clyde to maintain the arrangements for the vessel to remain at Pier 7, supporting the group and the ship itself. They gave the Falls of Clyde 30 days to be moved where it would then be impounded. The Friends of the Falls of Clyde had responded with all the technical documentation they could provide to indicate that the vessel was still safe. The organization also submitted the outline of plans to get the ship into dry dock next year (2017) and offered an alternative plan to find a new owner or location outside of Hawaii. The state of Hawaii rejected this proposal and continued with its decision to impound and evict the Falls of Clyde. They found the plans unacceptable because they did not address the vessels immediate removal.
The Harbors Division cited that it must meet its duty to protect Hawaii’s largest port and they impounded the ship. By October it was beginning to look again like the historic ship was going to be scuttled with a local dive charter group stating their desire to make the vessel into a dive attraction. More on this later. Many people (this author included) have mailed the various governmental entities pleading the case of the ship and explaining its historical significance; all have received a canned response. There was also an online petition to rescue the ship. A naval architect report stated that the condition of the hull has not changed since 2013. According to the Ship’s Log for the Friends of the Falls of Clyde very time the matter of safety was raised in meetings with the HDOT there was never a specific reason made to back up the Harbor Divisions allegations & decisions.
The Harbors Divisions reasons with desiring the ship to be removed is that it is believed that the ship is in such deteriorated condition that if there was a hurricane, storm surge or tsunami that the vessel founder and possibly breaking up at its berth or worse breaking up and having debris wash into the channel causing a threat to navigation. although the vessel is listed on the NRHP and is also designated a National Historic Landmark, historic preservation laws apparently would not come into play unless Hawaii continued in its efforts to forcibly remove the ship.
In attempt to find a new home for the Falls of Clyde Friends of the Falls of Clyde international group was also formed. It initiative was then to return the ship to its home in Scotland. In the most recent piece of news SNP MP Alison Thewliss wrote to the Governor of Hawaii urging him to not scrap or scuttle the Falls of Clyde. Tens of millions of pounds would be then needed to refurbish the ship and for the transport of the ship from Honolulu Hawaii to Glasgow, Scotland. Where the vessel would either be put on display as a museum ship again or possibly used as a sail training ship. Obviously a move to Scotland would effectively remove the ship from being on the NRHP or being NHL. Currently the ship remains at her place at Pier 7 in Honolulu, awaiting her nebulous fate.
Playing Devil’s Advocate: The Carthaginian II and the Falls of Clyde
First off I want to state for the readers that I, as an archaeologist, historian, and historic preservationist I inherently support the preservation of historic ships like the Falls of Clyde and to groups like the Friends of the Falls of Clyde dedicated to preserving historic ships. The Falls of Clyde has always been lucky to have a dedicated group of followers that have fallen in love with her and they have a stake in the ship’s fate. Historic preservation like all endeavours involving our human past require a lot of passion and its that passion that makes it go. It’s that passion that has rescued the Falls of Clyde time and again in its recent history. I wanted to acknowledge these facts prior to making the argument that I am about to make purely that it is an arguement that is worth at least some due consideration. I’m by no means advocating that the ship should be sunk, I’m simply stating that it could be sunk. I’m hoping the reader can understand that distinction.
Sinking a historic ship as a possible dive attraction is not a bad fate for a ship, the vessel would not be lost forever. The Falls of Clyde is not even the only museum ship currently facing this possible fate, the U.S.S. Clagamore (SS-343) and the S.S. Norisle are both discussed as being sunk as dive attractions purely because the loyal organizations and caretakers these vessels have simply do not have the resources to maintain their upkeep. All of these vessels and their current preservation issues will be covered in later blog posts. Sinking a ship would not destroy its integrity or detract from the vessels history. Even if the vessel is kept with the depths of conventional diving the vessel could still be preserved or even maintain its state of preservation possibly better than it did prior to being sunk. Additionally vessels sunk in this way also can help the environment by becoming an artificial reef to local sea life. Sinking a ship for that reason has already proven valuable to the environment and has been seen in many cases on the east coast and in the gulf. It is true that seawater does in fact east and degrade shipwrecks but, regardless the ship can still tell its story and give its information long before becoming a rust stain on the bottom of the ocean just like any shipwreck.
Aside from the obvious, sinking a former museum ship would change the access to the ship and its history. When ships like the Falls of Clyde were on the surface operating as a museum they are accessible to nearly everyone who has an interest in the ship and its history. When it is put on the bottom access to the ship is restricted to only those who have dive training or perhaps now with advent of personal ROV’s people who own those would also have access. The fundamental fact is not everyone would have access to the ship anymore. Although the cost for the next dry dock and restoration of the Falls of Clyde is at $35 million, sinking a vessel would alleviate that cost. The only cost being (as we will see) The removal and cleaning of the ship of anything that could possibly harm the environment.
In Hawaii there is already a precedent for sinking a former museum ship as a dive attraction with the wreck of the Carthaginian II. The Carthaginian II was a steel hulled double masted brigantine that operated as a floating whaling museum (commemorating that part of Hawaii’s history) in Lahaina on the island of Maui, after sailing from Sweden to Maui in 1973. The 100-foot long vessel was original constructed in 1920 and operated as a cement freighter. The Carthaginian II was restored, that is, made to look like an 1840’s whaling brig. This vessel shares a similar story as the Falls of Clyde in that the hull fell into disrepair threatening to sink at its mooring and becoming another threat to navigation. Much like the Falls of Clyde, the Carthaginian II had a dedicated group of people who attempted to rescue the ship during hurricane Iniki in 1992. In 2005 the Carthaginian II was sunk in 95 feet of waster and has served as a dive attraction and a stop for Atlantis Submarines ever since. Atlantis Submarines is a submarine tour company in Hawaii and the company had spent $350,000 to prepare the Carthaginian II for sinking by cleaning out bilges, flushing the engine, and that the tanks and lines were cleaned. In the time since the Carthaginian II was sunk, sea life has flourished around the artificial reef. With the Falls of Clyde in the state that it is in, sinking is not a bad fate and vessel may be better served on the bottom. Agreed it would be sad after how many times the Falls of Clyde has avoided sinking only now to be forced into it. Although sinking would show the Falls of Clyde a lot more respect than just letting it degrade at the pier or worse sending it to the scrappers. It is also unknown how sinking would affect the vessels status in the NRHP and NHL. Perhaps because of changing the context of the ship the NRHP form would have to be rewritten to accommodate it; there are plenty of shipwrecks on the NRHP. There is no historical precedent for such a situation with the NRHP.
The Falls of Clyde is truly a survivor. It has survived obsolescence from steam ships, scrapping, sinking, groundings, and hurricanes nearly innumerable times. Fate has led this ship to be preserved when most of her sister ships have been lost in one way or another. The one thing that the ship may not survive is negligence. The Bishop Museum has itself has been accused of incompetence and dishonesty in their stewardship of the Falls of Clyde. It would seem that since the beginning the vessel was a financial burden that the Museum could not handle. That it was assumed that since this a Museum that it would be able to handle an artifact like a historic ship. The actions of the museum would indicated that they did not want to handle the ship. As the current restoration costs are $35 Million it goes without saying that maintaining a museum ship is a massive financial undertaking. Altough a history and science musuem, the Bishop museum was never a martime museum and did not have the knowledge, capability, infrastructure or desire to maintain a musuem ship. The Bishop Museum is devoted to natural history therefore a historic ship would be outside of its core focus.
“Museums need to weigh unlimited needs with very limited resources. We spent as much as we could and it just wasn’t enough.” Blair Collis, Vice President Bishop Museum.
There is little doubt that since the ship was revived in the early seventies that the Falls of Clyde was neglected. Neglect has led to the situation that the ship faces now. If the ship had received its required upkeep the vessel could still be as it was when the Falls of Clyde was initially restored. although fate, determination and perseverance have all contributed to this ship being preserved perhaps sinking isn’t a bad option considering the circumstances. The fate of the Falls of Clyde remains uncertain. The next ship in tis series is one of the largest blunders in shipwreck recovery and maritime museums: The former shipwreck and museum ship Alvin Clark.
Sources & Resources
Change.org Online Petition Save The Falls of Clyde
The Friends of The Falls of Clyde
Friends of Falls of Clyde, INC. Preservation Plan
Cruz, Catherine. Steel-hulled sailing tanker Falls of Clyde Faces Funding Challenges.KITV. (Accessed Via Internet Wayback Machine)
Fraser, Gemma Save Our Ship: Falls of Clyde Heads for Scuttling in Hawaii. The Times
Hall, Sabrina. Falls of Clyde May Have Sinking Fate.KGMB9 News Hawaii. (Accessed Via Internet Wayback Machine)
Hannah, Martin Last Chance To Save Falls of Clyde Sailing Ship is Sunk By Authorities In Hawaii. The National
Historic “Falls of Clyde” has sights set on dry dock. Hawaii News Now KHMB KHNL
Notice of Illegal Mooring. State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Harbors Division.
Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law, Decision, and Order in Re: The Matter of Friends of Falls of Clyde and Vessel Falls of Clyde. State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Harbors Division.
Ship “Falls of Clyde”. Historic American Engineering Record
MP Steps Into Fight To Save Clyde-Build Ship Under Threat In Hawaii. The Herald Scotland
Falls of Clyde Could Be Safely Relocated. The Honolulu Star Advertiser
Kakesako, Gregg. Historic Ship Ordered Out of Pier 7. The Honolulu Star Advertiser
Krauss, Bob The Indestructible Square Rigger Falls of Clyde: 324 Voyages Under Sail Bishop Museum Press 2004 *Incredible resource, if you want to read more this ships history this is the book.
Khon 2 State “Evicts” Falls of Clyde from Honolulu Harbor, citing safety concerns
Khon 2. Friends of Falls of Clyde Submits Plan for Future of Historic Ship.
Khon 2. State Rejects Falls of Clyde Proposal, Continues With Eviction.
Khon 2. State Upholds Decision to Impound Historic Ship at Honolulu Harbor.
Kubota, Gary. Sunk! The Iconic Carthaginian Will Create an Artificial Reef off Maui. Honolulu Star Bulletin
Five Years Later, Carthaginian II A Thriving Artificial Reef. Lahaina News.
McCall, Chris. Historic Falls of Clyde Sailing Ship Set to Be Scuttled. The Scotsman
McEwan, Bruce. State Effort To Have Falls of Clyde Removed From Harbor Is Baffling. Honolulu Star Advertiser.
National Marine Historical Society Falls of Clyde
National Marine Historical Society Blog. Time Running Out For Falls of Clyde.
Falls of Clyde National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form. National Park Service.
Pala, Christopher. Historic Ship Stays Afloat In Hawaii, For Now. The New York Times
Pala, Christopher. Falling Into Place. The Honolulu Weekly
Piper, Laura. Fight To Bring Home Historic Ship From Hawaii After 138 Years. STV
Museum To Transfer Historic Ship.The Star Bulletin
Spillman, Rick. The End of Falls of Clyde? Too Many Broken Promises? The Old Salt Blog
Falls of Clyde Dry Docking Delayed. Traditional Boats & Tall Ships Magazine
Willams, Martin. Hawaii Group Bids To Save Clyde-Built Ship From A Watery Grave. The Herald Scotland
Vorsino, Mary. Falls of Clyde Artifacts Missing. The Honolulu Advertiser.